Ƶ

White Papers

  • Network security trends continue to evolve. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has defined the Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) which refers to the narrowing of network defense perimeters. Ƶ has a long history of engineering trustworthy and secure network equipment that is inline with this NIST publication.

    711 KB
  • Large earth stations host communication systems that provide mission-critical, high-bandwidth services to multiple customers. Within these earth stations are many frequency-based devices with independent local oscillators that generate and convert carrier frequencies, and modulate and demodulate data. Locking these oscillators to a common, stable and low-noise frequency reference distribution system is fundamental to minimizing frequency issues and supporting higher data rates.

    921 KB
  • The satellite communications infrastructure provides critical services for government and civil applications at increasing carrier frequencies and data rates. Within the ground and space-borne systems are devices that generate microwave level frequencies that form uplinks and downlinks. At the core of these systems are high-quality frequency references that are fundamental to establishing stable, high bandwidth communication links

    474 KB
  • Time is not just an extraneous network service. Accurate time is essential to determining the order in which events occur and is a fundamental aspect of transaction integrity, logging/auditing, troubleshooting and forensics. Accurate, reliable time is necessary for financial and legal transactions, transportation and distribution systems, database management and many other applications involving widely distributed resources.

    377 KB
  • The Precision Time Protocol, as defined in the IEEE-1588 standard, provides a method to precisely synchronize computers over a Local Area Network (LAN). PTP is capable of synchronizing multiple clocks to better than 100 nanoseconds on a network specifically designed for IEEE-1588.

    200 KB
  • This paper introduces a new class of precision timing and frequency reference that indirectly receives Ƶ timing and frequencyvia the transmissions from Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile telecommunications base stations. Ƶ Technologies has developed and is manufacturing a proprietary time and frequency engine specifically optimized to faithfully reproduce the inherent precision time and frequency characteristics of the IS-95 CDMA spread spectrum signals. The salient characteristics of the IS-95 CDMA signals which make it so well suited to this use and a general receiver architecture are described. Performance data versus similar references that use conventional Ƶ reception are also presented. Presented atPrecise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications (PTTI) Meeting in November 2001.

    361 KB
  • This is a report written by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) about tests performed on our Meridian II Precision TimeBase.

    1.1 MB
  • Ƶ NTP Servers are primarily designed for Stratum 1 operation, but also support Stratum 2. Ƶ products can be configured for peering but we don’t recommend it for Stratum 1 Time Servers. This paper explains why. It also explains the difference between Stratum 2 mode and peering.

    208 KB
  • This document explains the methodology to measure and adjust the timing outputs from an Ƶ product to the 10-nanosecond RMS level of agreement with UTC.

    446 KB
  • For optimal performance, some of our products can be configured with the Real-Time-Ionospheric Corrections (RTIC) option. This document illustrates the operation of the RTIC option in a real-world situation.

    257 KB
  • This paper will show that the NTP and PTP timestamps from Ƶ Technologies Network Time Servers are traceable through the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST), and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).

    908 KB
  • A new way of obtaining precision, UTC traceable time and frequency has come of age, made possible by the rapidly expanding, global deployment of CDMA. In essence, the CDMA base stations act as repeaters of the Ƶ timing information they receive from the satellites. The spread-spectrum modulation scheme employed by the IS-95 CDMA system allows this Ƶ time reference to be extracted from the base station transmissions with a high degree of precision. Presented atPrecise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications (PTTI) Meeting in November 2000.

    127 KB
  • Today, High Frequency Trading (HFT) requires low latency and knowledge of UTC time in capital markets where a difference of better than one millisecond provides a competitive advantage to trading firms. Better than 10-microsecond accuracy to UTC can be achieved using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) without routing an external antenna. Presented at the42nd AnnualPrecise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications (PTTI) in November 2010.

    1.1 MB